Saturday, November 10, 2018
Dominating this 500+ page Compendium are extensive sections roofing implementation of the Clean Water Act together with the Safe Drinking Water Act. Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 3rd as extensive department focuses on H2O infrastructure.
The 2 federal laws, the Clean Water Act together with the Safe Drinking Water Act, furnish the framework for the nation’s efforts to furnish prophylactic together with salubrious H2O to its citizens. Although much progress has been made towards the goals established inwards these laws, long-standing problems persist, together with novel problems direct keep emerged. Specific areas of involvement include whether additional steps are necessary to accomplish the overall goals of these acts; how to run into the costs together with technological challenges of providing prophylactic drinking H2O together with cleaning the catamenia of used H2O from a community; together with what is the appropriate federal purpose inwards guiding together with paying for prophylactic together with salubrious H2O together with other activities.
Over the concluding 35 years, federal, nation together with local governments, together with somebody utilities direct keep invested to a greater extent than than $100 billion inwards H2O infrastructure inwards lodge to hit the goals of the Clean Water Act together with the Safe Drinking Water Act, nonetheless remaining funding needs are projected to endure as much as $660 billion over the side yesteryear side 2 decades. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), if at that topographic point is no increase inwards investment, at that topographic point volition endure most an $11 billion annual gap betwixt electrical current working capital alphabetic lineament expenditures for H2O infrastructure (which full $23 billion annually) together with projected spending needs. Analysts predict that, barring major breakthroughs inwards technology, investment costs volition ascent for decades to come upward as to a greater extent than of the existing H2O infrastructure deteriorates. Many systems simultaneously aspect upward the demand to increase safety measures together with to build handling plants to withdraw newly regulated drinking H2O contaminants. At effect are how to run into funding needs together with what are the appropriate populace together with somebody sector roles inwards doing so. State, municipal, together with rural stakeholders direct keep called for greater federal investment inwards H2O infrastructure, piece others (including privately owned H2O utilities) direct keep argued for greater self-reliance.
Date of Report: Jan 3, 2013
Number of Pages: 544
Order Number: C12020
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Specialist inwards Environmental Policy
Hydraulic fracturing is a technique developed initially to arrive at crude oil production from wells in declining crude oil reservoirs. With technological advances, hydraulic fracturing is directly widely used to initiate crude oil too gas production inwards unconventional (low-permeability) crude oil too gas formations that were previously inaccessible. This procedure directly is used inwards to a greater extent than than 90% of novel crude oil too gas wells. Hydraulic fracturing is done later a good is drilled too involves injecting large volumes of water, sand (or other propping agent), too specialized chemicals nether plenty pressure level to fracture the formations asset the crude oil or gas. The sand or other proppant holds the fractures open to permit the crude oil or gas to period of time freely out of the formation too into a production well. Its application, along amongst horizontal drilling, for production of natural gas (methane) from tight gas sands, unconventional shale formations, too coal beds, has resulted inwards the marked expansion of estimated U.S. natural gas reserves inwards recent years. Similarly, hydraulic fracturing is enabling the development of tight crude oil resources, such every bit the Bakken too Eagle Ford formations. The rapid growth inwards the utilization of fracturing has raised concerns over its potential impacts on groundwater and drinking H2O sources, too has led to calls for to a greater extent than solid reason and/or federal oversight of this activity.
Historically, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) had non regulated the underground injection of fluids for hydraulic fracturing of crude oil or gas production wells. In 1997, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit ruled that fracturing for coalbed marsh gas (CBM) production in Alabama constituted clandestine injection too must last regulated nether the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). This ruling led EPA to study the adventure that hydraulic fracturing for CBM production might position to drinking H2O sources. In 2004, EPA reported that the adventure was small, except where diesel was used, too that national regulation was non needed. However, to address regulatory uncertainty the ruling created, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005) revised the SDWA term “underground injection” to explicitly exclude the injection of fluids too propping agents (except diesel fuel) used for hydraulic fracturing purposes. Thus, EPA lacks authorisation nether the SDWA to regulate hydraulic fracturing, except where diesel is used. As the utilization of the process has grown, to a greater extent than or less inwards Congress would similar to revisit this statutory exclusion. In EPA’s FY2010 appropriations act, Congress urged the means to study the human relationship betwixt hydraulic fracturing too drinking H2O quality. In belatedly 2012, EPA issued a query progress report. In May 2012, EPA issued draft permitting guidance for hydraulic fracturing operations using diesel.
Several relevant bills were offered inwards the 112th Congress, precisely none was enacted. H.R. 1084/S. 587 proposed repealing the hydraulic fracturing exemption established inwards EPAct 2005, too amending the term “underground injection” to include the injection of fluids used inwards hydraulic fracturing operations, thence authorizing EPA to regulate this procedure nether the SDWA. The bills besides would have required disclosure of the chemicals used inwards the fracturing process. In reply to rules proposed past times the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) inwards 2012, S. 2248/H.R. 4322 proposed that a state would bring sole authorisation to regulate hydraulic fracturing on federal lands inside state boundaries; H.R. 3973 would bring prohibited the dominion from having whatsoever outcome on Indian lands; and H.R. 6235 would bring barred a concluding dominion for 10 years, pending an behave on study. At the state level, many states bring revised laws too rules to address high-volume hydraulic fracturing.
This study reviews past times too proposed handling of hydraulic fracturing nether the SDWA, the principal federal statute for regulating the clandestine injection of fluids to protect groundwater sources of drinking water. It reviews electrical flow SDWA provisions for regulating underground injection activities, too discusses to a greater extent than or less possible implications of the enactment of legislation authorizing EPA to regulate hydraulic fracturing (beyond diesel) nether this statute.
Date of Report: Jan 10, 2013
Number of Pages: 43
Order Number: R41760
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Friday, November 9, 2018
This Compendium provides details on the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for disaster response, recovery, together with mitigation projects. It discusses the exercise of the USA Fire Administration. Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 department on nuclear power plants signal to their vulnerabilities. The Emergency Planning together with Community Right-to-Know Act together with the major regulatory programs that mandate reporting by industrial facilities of releases of potentially hazardous chemicals to the environment, as good equally local planning to answer inwards the number of pregnant releases are summarized. The traditional funding for major disaster declarations, both through annual requested amounts together with through supplemental appropriations to meet greater than anticipated costs. Also explained are the workings of the President’s Disaster Relief Fund, a “no-year” fund that finances spending nether the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief together with Emergency Assistance Act (P.L. 93-288).
Project Bioshield (P.L. 108-276), which provides the federal government with novel authorities related to the development, procurement, together with exercise of medical countermeasures against chemical, biological, radiological, together with nuclear terrorism agents, is outlined.
The agricultural sector is non exempt from disaster together with this Compendium provides an overview of the electrical flow U.S. Department of Agriculture disaster assistance programs -- federal crop insurance, noninsured crop disaster assistance, and emergency disaster loans.
Date of Report: Jan 11, 2013
Number of Pages: 177
Order Number: C12013
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Climate Modify Together With Existing Law: A Survey Of Legal Issues Past, Present, Together With Future
This study surveys existing law for legal issues that lead keep arisen, or may arise inwards the future, on account of climate modify as well as regime responses thereto.
At the threshold of many climate-change-related lawsuits are 2 barriers—whether the plaintiff has standing to sue as well as whether the claim existence made presents a political question. Both barriers have forced courts to apply amorphous standards inwards a novel as well as complex context.
Efforts to mitigate climate change—that is, trim greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions—have spawned a host of legal issues. The Supreme Court resolved a big 1 inwards 2007: the Clean Air Act (CAA), it said, authorizes EPA to regulate GHG emissions. EPA’s subsequent efforts to comport out that authorization lead keep been sustained past times the D.C. Circuit. Another number is whether EPA’s “endangerment finding” for GHG emissions from novel motor vehicles volition compel EPA to move against GHG emissions from other sources, and, if EPA does, whether the CAA authorizes capand- trade programs. Still other mitigation issues are (1) the utilisation of the Endangered Species Act in addressing climate change; (2) how climate modify must endure considered nether the National Environmental Policy Act; (3) liability as well as other questions raised past times carbon capture and sequestration; (4) constitutional constraints on reason utilisation rule as well as state actions against climate change; as well as (5) whether earth trust doctrine applies to the atmosphere.
Liability for harms allegedly caused past times climate modify has raised only about other crop of legal issues. The Supreme Court conclusion that the CAA bars federal judges from imposing their ain limits on GHG emissions from might plants has led observers to ask: Can plaintiffs alleging climate change harms notwithstanding seek monetary damages, as well as are state police line claims notwithstanding allowed? The two rulings as well as thence far state no to the former, but dissever on the latter. Questions of insurance policy coverage are likewise probable to endure litigated. Finally, the applicability of international police line principles to climate change has yet to endure resolved.
Water shortages idea to endure induced past times climate modify probable volition Pb to litigation over the nature of H2O rights. Shortages lead keep already prompted several lawsuits over whether cutbacks in H2O delivered from federal projects upshot Fifth Amendment takings or breaches of contract.
Sea degree rising as well as extreme atmospheric precipitation linked to climate modify enhance questions equally to (1) the effect of body of body of water degree rising on the beachfront owner’s belongings line; (2) whether world beach access easements migrate amongst the landward movement of beaches; (3) pattern as well as functioning of federal levees; as well as (4) regime failure to lead keep preventive measures against climate modify harms.
Other adaptation responses to climate modify raising legal issues, oftentimes belongings rights related, are beach armoring (seawalls, bulkheads, etc.), beach renourishment, as well as “retreat” measures. Retreat measures seek to displace existing evolution away from areas probable to endure affected by floods as well as body of body of water degree rise, as well as to discourage novel evolution there.
Natural disasters to which climate modify contributes may prompt questions equally to whether response actions taken inwards an emergency are dependent area to relaxed requirements and, similarly, equally to the rebuilding of structures destroyed past times such disasters only equally they were before.
Finally, immigration as well as refugee police line look non to encompass persons forced to relocate because of climate modify impacts such equally drought or body of body of water degree rise.
Date of Report: Jan 3, 2012
Number of Pages: 37
Order Number: R42613
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Specialist inwards Environmental Policy
The useful properties of chemicals render many benefits to consumers too bolster the U.S. economy, merely these benefits may come upwards amongst a price, every bit exposure to certainly chemicals tin atomic number 82 to adverse effects on human wellness or the environment. This written report briefly describes selected issues related to rule of chemicals inwards commerce yesteryear the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that are of potential involvement to the 113th Congress.
Concerns most the complexity, cost, too delays inwards regulating chemicals nether the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) bring prompted proposals (such every bit S. 847 inwards the 112th Congress) to amend the 1976 statute. Some would render EPA amongst specific control too mandates to ensure adequate management of chemic risks. Others would amend item provisions, leaving most of the constabulary intact. TSCA reform is a high priority for to a greater extent than or less inwards the 113th Congress.
Another number is whether to expand or trammel EPA’s control to demand world disclosure of chemical data nether the Emergency Planning too Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) or TSCA. Bills inwards the 112th Congress (H.R. 1084 too S. 587) would bring required oil and gas producers to give away identities of chemicals used inwards hydraulic fracturing. Other administrative too legislative initiatives likewise would bring mandated to a greater extent than world disclosure.
The integrity of scientific advice provided to EPA may last to a greater extent than or less other salient issue. Some inwards the 112th Congress expressed describe of piece of job organization most the composition of EPA’s Science Advisory Board (SAB). H.R. 6564 would bring required a rebalancing of “the scientific too technical points of view represented.” EPA’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) has been criticized yesteryear to a greater extent than or less for being out of appointment too incomplete, spell the procedure of conducting chemic adventure assessments is said to last slow. The National Research Council (NRC) made recommendations to amend IRIS reports inwards 2011, too Congress directed EPA to “incorporate, every bit appropriate,” NRC recommendations too to contract amongst the National Academy of Sciences to bear several reviews of IRIS assessments, including 1 for inorganic arsenic.
Pesticides issues to a greater extent than ofttimes than non are resolved nether the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, too Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), which directs EPA to regulate the sale too role of pesticides through registration of products. The 112th Congress was interested inwards apparent overlap betwixt FIFRA too the Clean Water Act (CWA). At number is whether FIFRA is sufficient lone to ensure protection of water quality or whether certainly pesticide applications demand a CWA permit. In answer to a court order, EPA issued a full general permit requiring applicators to minimize pesticide discharges to waters. House-passed H.R. 872 would bring exempted aerial pesticide application activities from water permit requirements. The Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, too Forestry approved the nib inwards June 2011.
Another number of potential involvement is whether to amend both TSCA too FIFRA to accommodate certain international agreements intended to cut back production too role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) globally. S. 847, every bit reported inwards the 112th Congress, would bring added a new section to TSCA authorizing actions allowing U.S. implementation of the 3 international agreements.
Finally, every bit it considers appropriations, Congress may actively see what amount of federal grant coin should last made available to address lead-based pigment hazards inwards older homes.
Date of Report: Jan 3, 2013
Number of Pages: 12
Order Number: R42879
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Dominating this 500+ page Compendium are extensive sections roofing implementation of the Clean Water Act together with the Safe Drinkin...
Mary Tiemann Specialist inwards Environmental Policy Adam Vann Legislative Attorney Hydraulic fracturing is a technique developed ...
Jonathan L. Ramseur Specialist inwards Environmental Policy Jane A. Leggett Specialist inwards Energy together with Environmental Po...
Claudia Copeland Specialist inwards Resources as well as Environmental Policy Much progress has been made inwards achieving the ambit...